"The practice of medicine is an art, not a trade, a calling, not a business, a calling in which your heart will be exercised equally with your head."

by William Osler, MD (1903)

Physicians were unable to enter the head, chest, and abdomen in a meaningful way for millions of years, so they resorted to an almost endless variety of medications to treat conditions that often proved to be fatal. It wasn't until the discovery of anesthesia and the investigative use of the scientific method in the middle of the nineteenth century that healthcare providers became truly effective.